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FHE resources

A curated list of resources about Fully Homomorphic Encryption.

FHE Libraries

Name Description Author Stars
Concrete Rust FHE library that implements Zama's variant of TFHE. Zama
HEaaN C++ FHE library implementing CKKS scheme that supports bootstrapping and GPU-acceleration. CryptoLab
HElib BGV scheme with bootstrapping and the Approximate Number CKKS scheme. HomEnc
Lattigo lattice-based multiparty homomorphic encryption library in Go. LDS
OpenFHE OpenFHE is an open-source FHE library that provides production-ready implementations of all major FHE schemes. OpenFHE.org
Palisade C++ FHE library that supports all the major FHE protocols. Duality
SEAL C++ FHE library implementing BFV and CKKS schemes. Microsoft
TFHE-rs A pure Rust implementation of TFHE for booleans and small integer arithmetics over encrypted data Zama

FHE Resources

Date Title Description Author Tags
2022.11.19 FHE and machine learning: A student perspective with examples Optalysys offered an undergraduate internship over the summer of 2022. The goal of this internship was to introduce a student to the world of encrypted data science, and see what was possible given the current state of the field. Our intern for 2022, Peter Li, was a second-year (now third-year) undergraduate studying mechanical engineering at Oxford University. Peter’s work focused on the deployment of common machine learning models in the FHE space, and his article below covers the application of the Zama Concrete library to several different network models and data-sets. Peter Li, Florent Michel and Joseph Wilson Tutorials
2022.08.18 Encrypted Conway's Game of Life in Rust with the Concrete library In July 2022, Zama announced the latest release of the Concrete Framework that aims at simplifying the use of Fully Homomorphic Encryption, or FHE, a powerful tool allowing users to compute over encrypted data. The goal of this blogpost is to see this new version of Concrete in action. We will upgrade an already existing example, Conway’s Game of life by Optalysys, using concrete-boolean so it can benefit from new features available in Concrete v0.2. Jean-Baptiste Orfila Tutorials
2022.07.07 Homomorphic Large Precision Integers Using Concrete In this talk, we will detail a few constructions of large integers based on the TFHE cryptosystem. We will also explore their theoretical aspects along with their implementations in the Concrete library. Jean-Baptiste Orfila Theory
2022.06.02 TFHE deep-dive - part 4 - Programmable Bootstrapping Now that we have all these ingredients, we are finally ready to build the most complex operation. We need three more additional building blocks -- the modulus switching, the sample extraction and the blind rotation -- and then we will be good to go. Ilaria Chillotti Theory
2022.05.18 TFHE deep-dive - part 3 - Key switching and leveled multiplications In this post, we will continue describing some more leveled homomorphic operations and building blocks. The goal is to create a solid basis to be able to understand bootstrapping in the next blog post. Ilaria Chillotti Theory
2022.05.11 TFHE deep-dive - part 2 - Encodings and linear leveled operations In this post we will start discovering how to perform operations on these ciphertexts. In particular, we will describe two simple homomorphic operations: homomorphic addition and multiplication by unencrypted constants. Ilaria Chillotti Theory
2022.05.04 TFHE deep-dive - part 1- Ciphertext types This blog post is part of a series of posts dedicated to the Fully Homomorphic Encryption scheme called TFHE (also known as CGGI, from the names of the authors Chillotti-Gama-Georgieva-Izabachène). Each post will allow you to go deeper into the understanding of the scheme. The subject is challenging, we know, but don’t worry, we will dive into it little by little. Ilaria Chillotti Theory
2022.04.28 Single-Trace Side-Channel Attack on SEAL Homomorphic Encryption Library In this talk, Furkan will talk about the first side-channel attack on homomorphic encryption, which allows computing on encrypted data. The attack targets the Gaussian sampling in the SEAL’s encryption phase and can extract the entire secret message with a single power measurement. Furkan Aydin Engineering
2022.03.29 Verifiable Computation over Encrypted Data: SNARKs and more This talk will present Rinocchio, a new designated-verifiable SNARK for ring arithmetic that allows to verify evaluations of FHE ciphertexts. We will discuss the challenges and open problems in the area. Anca Nitulescu Theory
2022.02.25 Single-server private information retrieval using homomorphic encryption In this talk, Haris will talk about private information retrieval (PIR) protocols based on Somewhat/Fully Homomorphic Encryption (SHE/FHE). PIR allows the client to privately retrieve a record from a database hosted at the server. He will first discuss a general framework of PIR protocols. Followed by optimizations to improve the request size, computation time, and response overhead including the results from ACM CCS’21. Muhammad Haris Engineering
2022.01.20 An overview of Hybrid Homomorphic Encryption Fully Homomorphic Encryption (FHE) has long been considered the crown jewel of cryptology and it is only recently that efficient solutions have started to emerge. Being as it is, the current state of the art of FHE still comes along with a huge expansion factor that implies an overload both in computation time and bandwidth usage. Hybrid Homomorphic Encryption, or transciphering, aims to solve the latter issue by combining the efficiency of light symmetric schemes with the computational power of FHE. In this talk, we will present an history of HHE, talk about the latest advances in the domain and address the issues that are yet to be solved. Orel Cosseron and Clément Hoffman Theory
2022 Foundations of Private Computation Become a data scientist and statistician capable of studying data you do not own and cannot see. Learn every major privacy-preserving technique to an intermediate level, understand how they work together, and how you can use them to safely study data owned by another organization (such as another university, enterprise, or government) without ever seeing the underlying data yourself. Open Mined Theory
2021.12.22 Data governance is in desperate need of innovation From a policy perspective, historically, from about the late seventies, the topic of data governance has been framed with a focus on concerns around privacy and data protection. It became a trade issue at the end of the nineties and since then there has been very little progress in multilateral fora in terms of finding a common vocabulary to discuss data governance more systemically, and to measure the value of data, both from an economic and social perspective. Jeremy Bradley and Lorrayne Porciuncula Non-technical
2021.12.21 FHE at the speed of light After a very brief introduction to the core operations of FHE and what makes them slow, we will provide a short review of the physical principles behind Fourier optics and a high-level explanation of how it can, in principle, eliminate the main bottleneck in FHE. We will then show how our technology leverages this theoretical potential to develop a practical solution in a time frame of a few years. Finally, we will present results from numerical experiments using a modified version of the Concrete library showing the speed-up this technology can provide in the next three years. We will also take this opportunity to show how easy Concrete, the Google FHE transpiler, and other libraries make it for companies outside the traditional cryptography community to work with FHE, another important point for future wide adoption. Florent Michel Engineering
2021.12.01 Homomorphic Encryption 101 Fully Homomorphic Encryption (FHE) has long been considered as the holy grail of cryptography. The concept was imagined in the late seventies, but the first realization only came three decades later. Today, both the public and private sectors are embracing this new security paradigm and are actively working at making FHE more practical and easier to use. Marc Joye Non-technical
2021.11.23 Why we need revolutionnary hardware for FHE The need for revolutionary hardware to enable FHE applications was identified by DARPA in the context of the DPRIVE program. As part of the DPRIVE program execution, Intel and Microsoft are realizing a platform to make FHE technologies more accessible by developing revolutionary hardware and software stack. Furthermore, the team is committed to the development of international standards and best practices. Overall, the initiative can enable unprecedented, cost-effective FHE performance, and pave the path for industrial deployment. Rosario Cammarota Engineering
2021.11.04 Introduction to homomorphic encryption In this video recording, Pascal Paillier from Zama gave an introduction to homomorphic encryption, including examples of application to machine learning. Pascal Paillier Theory
2021.11.03 Encrypted search using Fully Homomorphic Encryption Information is the lifeblood of the modern internet. As of January 2021, 4.66 billion people were active internet users, each one sending and receiving a torrent of data. Quite of lot of this data is (relatively speaking) harmless and can be shared and accessed to various degrees. A vast and lucrative market around analysing this data has sprung up to take advantage of this highly accessible information, albeit with associated concerns about how this data is used. Florent Michel, Joseph Wilson and Edward Cottle Tutorials
2021.10.18 Guide to Fully Homomorphic Encryption over the discretized torus This guide is intended to practitioners. It explains the inner-workings of TFHE, a torus-based fully homomorphic encryption scheme. More exactly, it describes its implementation on a discretized version of the torus. It also explains in detail the technique of the programmable bootstrapping. Marc Joye Theory
2021.09.30 Concrete Boolean and Conway's Game of Life When developing any application, we first need an understanding of what it is that we want to achieve. In this case, we want to implement Conway’s Game of Life through encrypted Boolean operations. Florent Michel, Joseph Wilson and Edward Cottle. Tutorials
2021.09.15 6-minute introduction to end to end encryption and try out an FHE demo for yourself Encryption has been around for thousands of years, used across the ages to send secret messages to one another. For example the Caesar cipher, which consists of simply swapping letters in the alphabet, is one of the earliest encryption techniques, dating back to 60BC! [...] Zama Non-technical
2021.08.26 Homomorphic Machine Learning using Numpy & Concrete Making FHE mainstream requires tools that make it easy to use for non-cryptographers. Being able to take regular Numpy programs and run them on encrypted data would enable data scientists to integrate FHE into their models, however complex they might be. In this talk, the team at Zama introduce a homomorphic numpy compiler, demonstrate how it can be used to run a recurrent neural network on encrypted data, and share their thoughts on homomorphic compiling. Rand Hindi, Ayoub Benaissa, and Samuel Tap Tutorials
2021.08.26 People shouldn't care about privacy A technique called homomorphic encryption is about to radically change how we guarantee privacy online. Rand Hindi Non-technical
2021.08.26 Google's C++ to FHE compiler In this talk, Shruthi and Rob present the Fully Homomorphic Encryption Transpiler recently released by Google. The FHE transpiler automatically converts high-level [C++] code that operates on unencrypted data into a form that performs the same computation on encrypted data. Shruthi Gorantala and Rob Springer Engineering
2021.05.20 Developer Tools & Compilers In this talk, Alex walks through the inherent engineering challenges in developing FHE applications and discusses how tools like compilers that translate between standard programs and FHE implementations can step in to address some of these complexities. He discusses recent work in this space and, using different case study applications that represent common aspects of FHE applications, highlight where barriers to entry have been successfully lowered and where they still remain. Finally, he concludes by showing examples of what non-expert developers can achieve today and outline future directions for FHE compiler development. Alexander Viand Engineering
2021.04.15 TFHE deep dive TFHE is a fully homomorphic encryption scheme that enables fast homomorphic operations on booleans, integers and reals. By enabling both leveled and bootstrapped operations, TFHE can be used for a wide range of usecases, from homomorphic boolean circuits to homomorphic neural networks. In this talk, Ilaria will do a deep dive on TFHE, and explain the key concepts behind it. Ilaria Chillotti Theory
2021.04.15 Private set intersection via somewhat homomorphic encryption Somewhat/Fully Homomorphic Encryption (SHE/FHE) is a versatile tool for many cryptographic applications. In this talk, Ilia shows how to exploit SHE/FHE to build Private Set Intersection (PSI) protocols where two parties wish to compute the intersection of their respective private sets. He discusses the general framework of such protocols and the state-of-the-art optimizations including the results from ACM CCS’21. Ilia Iliashenko Engineering

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